The Biz: Asahi-Kasei and ESSTech go to war over mobile superiority

There’s no question that, over the past three years, ESSTech has completely dominated the premium portable digital audio segment. The fab-less circuit design firm kicked things off in 2014 with the introduction of the now-ubiquitous ES9018-2M, a mobile-minded DAC chip designed as a two-channel die shrink of the venerated 8-channel ES9018S (itself the evolved production version of the original flagship ‘SABRE’ chip, the ES9008). The ES9018-2M was designed as a reaction to the burgeoning smartphone market; Chinese smartphone manufacturers like Meizu, hoping to differentiate their low/mid-spec releases from the Apples and Samsungs of the world, sought to bring the audio enthusiast into their fold. The first designs were crude. These manufacturers basically slapped the ES9018K2M into their smartphones and called it a day, tantamount to stuffing a six-liter turbocharged V12 into a Toyota Corolla. The circuit boards weren’t cleanly optimized, and the measured performance suffered. Nevertheless, the impressive on-paper specifications made ESSTech a prime target for partnership. The lower cost and more flexible implementation of the mobile ES9018-2M also allowed SABRE products to further permeate the hi-fi market, especially in the portable segment. We did a review of the excellent Resonessence Labs Concero HP, one of the very first products to feature the ES9018K2M (Resonessence has familial ties to ESS’ R&D division and therefore gets intimate technical advisory support) back in 2014 (review here).

Since 2014, ESS has held a death grip over the high-end mobile DAC market with its ES9018K2M and associated products, dominating everything from smartphone audio to audiophile DACs. (Image from:

Soon, it was not only the Chinese smartphone makers that were contracting with ESSTech — Samsung’s compatriot rival LG started introducing phones with bespoke SoC modules dedicated to audio. Even motherboard makers in ASUS and MSI began ordering chips from ESSTech for their premium motherboards and laptops (link) / (link). With this kind of market dominance, ESSTech loomed like an albatross over the prospects main audio IC rivals Cirrus Audio (Wolfson included), Texas Instruments, and Asahi-Kasei. The mobile game seemed bleak as they watched ESS dominate mobile in every way imaginable, fulfilling orders in a chokehold.

It didn’t mean the other companies weren’t plotting their revenge, however.

This year at CES 2017, Asahi-Kasei Microdevices (AKM) launched a counteroffensive against the domination of ESSTech in the smartphone world (link). AKM launched the AK4492 DAC, the AK4205 headphone amplifier chip, and the AK1110 low dropout (LDO) voltage regulator simultaneously as a bid to one-up ESSTech’s current ES9028Q2M DAC, ES9602Q, and ES9311 LDO regulator.

Asahi-Kasei’s announcement at CES 2017 promises to shake things up.

On paper, the corresponding products from AKM are very similar, with near identical specifications, from noise floor to DNR to feature sets. The headphone amplifier parts, especially, have nearly identical features and differing very slightly on a few minute specifications. The LDO parts are the same way. In essence, AKM’s new portable solution is targeted to match parts from ESS, component to component, spec to spec.

This announcement bodes large consequences for the highly competitive smartphone industry. If you’re reading this article on CYMBACAVUM, you most likely do not care too much about what these announcements from AKM mean for the smartphone industry. Smartphone makers merely want an alternative offering that might be slightly more affordable or can differentiate their product from the dozens of ESS-powered smartphones in existence already. They won’t care for PCB layout optimization, jitter reduction, or matched solid state components. They just want to drop these parts into their phones and get them running just to brag about their performance numbers. The average consumer won’t be able to appreciate how AKM’s oversampling method differs from ESSTech’s Hyperstream technology. But guess what? A consummate hi-fi maker would. When designing a USB DAC/amp or DAP, high-end audio designers usually implement their own I/V conversion and amplification schema, but if these new SKUs are cost effective and have the performance to boot, they’ll be willing to try out the parts and ride off the high volume coattails of the smartphone makers.

Consider the case of Astell & Kern. Their current models are equipped mostly with DAC SKUs from Cirrus Logic and have never used ESS parts — likely on purpose in order to differentiate themselves from the rest of the crowd, as well as to gain higher bargaining power with Cirrus. However, their flagship model AK380, released in late 2015, migrated to Asahi-Kasei with its dual AK4490 chips. Could Astell & Kern leverage the AK4492, AK4205, and AK1110 parts to build a replacement for its AK100-II? It’s possible, though there have been no rumors that point in that direction. Of course, it’s not just Astell & Kern. It could be a much larger entity, such as Samsung, which is fresh off its $8 billion acquisition of Harman International (parent company of AKG, Harman-Kardon, and a multitude of other brands). They’ll need to capitalize off the optics of buying up a renowned audio firm — what better way than to upgrade their smartphones with high-end audio DACs? Of course, all of this is conjecture, and we’ll have no way of knowing what AKM’s effort to go mano a mano with ESS will bring. It could drive costs down, or send the spiraling sky high with an endless stream of derivative products. AKM could have trouble with its yields of its new chips, and the announcement could very well just fizzle away. Regardless, the possibilities are endless, and for the first time in a while, an alternative to ESS and its market dominance is on the horizon.

Op-Ed: Embrace the Jack-less revolution!

With the next generation Apple iPhone 7 set to be announced imminently, many people have bemoaned Apple’s decision (not 100% confirmed, but essentially a foregone conclusion, based on the substantial and numerous rumors) to remove the 3.5 mm analog jack from the phone. Not only have highly influential e-zines such as The Verge have come out blasting Apple for the move,a number of audiophiles have come out in arms over it as well. While it’s not a surprise that a mainstream publication comes up in arms in defense of the status quo, it is a surprise for audiophiles to do so as well. The rationale against removal of the headphone jack is that companies are doing it for the wrong reasons: DRM, cyclic consumerism, etc. It also makes total sense from an ‘if it ain’t broke…’ perspective — why mess with the simple and easy-to-use 3.5 mm jack? Reusing the same port for charging, data transfer, and headphone use also proves to be a practical impediment — what if people want to use headphones and charge their device at the same time?

I, for one, however, am in support of the move to remove the headphone jacks, especially in light of the audiophile perspective. What’s my reasoning? It’s largely in line with what most businesses are thinking — removal of the 3.5mm analog jack incentivizes accessory makers to create portable DACs and Bluetooth earphones that will retool an entire industry for the digital future. From the surface, this argument might seem like it has nothing to do with audiophiles; the pessimist will contend that most of these consumer-level DACs and BT earphones will be mediocre at best, leaving only the wired status-quo as “audiophile-grade”. This argument, however, is backwards-leaning and takes zero account for how the mass consumer sector is always the driver of progress for audiophile-oriented companies. Apple (and the rest of the tech industry, for that matter) wants to lead us into a wireless world, but audiophiles are stuck in a tethered cage.

So I ask the most adamant cord lover: why not wireless? I can imagine the replies: Bluetooth imparts too much jitter and can’t handle high-resolution files, and that well-implemented DACs are always large in footprint. Indeed, there is anecdotal evidence from numerous accounts from well-regarded DAC designers against Bluetooth for high-end audio in that jitter is difficult to minimize over BT, but serious attempts at 802.11-based wireless audio have been made with the potential for more. Remember the mini-review we did on the Celsus Sound Companion One? It was using first-generation wireless streaming technology to pipe 24-bit, 192 kS/s audio across the ether. It had some kinks to sort out, for sure, but I was tantalized by the kind of potential that exists for wireless streaming. Now imagine that kind of technology refined and miniaturized.

It doesn’t all have to be wireless, either — as the world’s preeminent smartphone maker with a history of ditching legacy ports, Apple is predictably ditching the 3.5mm jack in search of streamlining its interface technologies. Yet, they’re actually moving slower than expected in this recent USB Type-C tsunami. The jack-less revolution has already begun, and it didn’t begin with Apple. Intel has come out in full force to promote the widespread adoption of USB Type-C connectors for audio, and aside from Apple, the Android cadre will almost certainly introduce myriad earphone devices to accompany its inevitable shift to USB Type-C. What this means for the DAC industry is that low-power, high-performance converters, along with low-noise voltage regulators, precision clocks, and USB modules that accompany these DACs. This is the biggest reason for audio enthusiasts to get excited about the upcoming jack-less tsunami — the dramatic change the current electronics supply chain will undergo.

The bottom line is this: as a small-volume, niche market the audiophile world will never be the primary driver of innovation in audio technology, despite purveyors’ claims of pushing the limits of audio fidelity. The lowered cost of high-end DAC chips from ESSTech over the past couple of years? That’s the result of huge orders from Korean and Chinese smartphone companies. ESSTech is now designing entire SoCs that virtually guarantee high performance, high resolution audio conversion and playback from drop-in chips that do everything. If that seems like a threat to the existence of current “high-end” DACs, audiophile companies need not fear. They should not be afraid of being sublimated by the recent wave of smartphone manufacturers introducing self-proclaimed hi-fi devices; for most enthusiasts, as the audiophile spirit doesn’t merely encompass high-performance — it is equal parts number performance and obsession over every last detail, numerically representable or not. For every Lightning or USB Type-C connected DAC device the size of a current in-line microphone coming out in the next few years costing $59, there will be another $1099 device with the same features, but designed by a single guy who spent hundreds of hours trying out every single SMD resistor and capacitor available, tweaked every oversampling ratio, and tried ten different I/V converters on his way to audio nirvana.

iFi Audio’s iUSB 3.0: Next Generation Power

Editor’s Note: We thank iFi Audio and the Evergeneral Trading Corporation for their immense patience and coordination. We held onto the review loaner unit of the iUSB 3.0 for way longer than we’d originally intended, and their patience is much appreciated! 

We reviewed the original iUSBPower by iFi Audio about two years ago (review link) and found it immensely useful for people who wanted clean power for their USB DACs — especially those powered solely by USB power. It was a tight, compact unit with no unnecessary frills but all the functionality anyone needs. For all intents and purposes, there was little need to improve upon it. The audio world has stayed with USB 2.0 (via the UAC2 standard) and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. AMR’s lead technical head Thorsten Loesche, however, is not one to sit idly. Seeing that the USB 3.0 standard had been finalized for some time, he set out to improve upon the iUSBPower, updating both the USB protocol standard and ergonomic features.

The successor to the iFi Audio iUSB Power is here.
The successor to the iFi Audio iUSB Power is here; looks nearly the same, but it has all-new internals.

Two years later, the iUSB 3.0 is iFi Audio‘s futureproofed clean power solution; we won’t bother to list out the uses for cleaner power over USB here, as iFi Audio themselves have made this spiffy little video:

Given only a perfunctory glance, and the iUSB 3.0 would be mistaken for the last generation device; it is housed in the same exact housing as all the other iFi micro series cases — sturdy and utilitarian, just not quite luxurious. The real improvements are under the hood, and if you own more than one USB audio device and use both regularly — this is the device for you. For example, I personally own both my reference listening rig, the Resonessence Labs Concero HP (review) and a pair of KEF Egg speakers (link) for casual listening. Both can be plugged in and supplied by the iUSB 3.0, obviating the need for additional filtering devices or switches and hubs. Of course, traditional computer-specific USB components can also be connected as well, as the wider bandwidth of the USB 3.0 standard allows for the deprecated mode of UAC2 to take up only a fraction of the bandwidth, allowing for other uses like connecting an NAS, external SSD, etc.

The iUSB 3.0 has an extra pair of filtered USB outputs, making it perfect for dual output purposes.
The iUSB 3.0 has an extra pair of filtered USB outputs, making it perfect for dual output purposes.

Another subtle but significant change over the original iUSBPower is the Auto/On power sensing, which detects whether the computer’s USB bus is turned on and powers the device accordingly. Not only does this feature save on power consumption, it also prevents the passive components in a USB-powered DAC device from burning out due to overuse. The flipside, of course, is that components like TCXO/VCXO oscillators require quite a bit warm-up time to reach their most stable operating condition. The original iUSBPower was in an ‘always on’ state, but now the iUSB 3.0 gives users an option via a switch. Want your DAC to be constantly warmed up for instant musical enjoyment? Toggle the switch into the ‘On’ mode and let the power run constitutively. Don’t need that requirement? Put it on auto — it’s simple and painless.

The Auto/On toggle for automatic detection of an active USB bus can be useful for devices that do not have an on/off switch.
The Auto/On toggle for automatic detection of an active USB bus can be useful for devices that do not have an on/off switch.

For me, the extra pair of USB sockets, the future-proof 3.0 specification, and the auto power sensing — all without a penalty on cleanliness and stability of power — make the iUSB 3.0 a no-brainer. If you’re considering an USB power conditioner, look at this one — hard. AMR/iFi have definitely done their homework and made their iUSB 3.0 even more useful than the original iUSBPower device. As a clear product of evolution, it can supply two USB devices directly with full USB 3.0 Super Speed support, and auto-sense the USB handshake — all while remaining the exact same size in footprint.

The Iso-Earth function is still there, as are the connection indicator lights. Familiar, yet improved.
The Iso-Earth function is still there, as are the connection indicator lights. Familiar, yet improved.

If there’s one thing that could possibly be criticized about iUSB 3.0, it’s that it came out slightly premature and did not include support for the USB Type C connector and the USB 3.1 Gen 2 protocol extension that comes with it. From the way it looks, however, iFi will almost surely be coming out with an ‘iUSB 3.1’ next year, just as the next generation of premium USB DACs with Type C connectors (currently there’s only one USB audio device with Type C — the LG Hi-Fi Plus G5 Module) are flooding the market. For the time being, however, the iUSB 3.0 is already beyond sufficient for the way 99.9% of all USB DACs are connected (via USB 2.0). If you need to connect to two devices simultaneously, the iUSB 3.0 is the clean power module for you.

For more information regarding the iFi Audio iUSB 3.0, please visit their website:


Mr. T is an in-ear fanatic by day, and writes SOAP notes by night. He pities the fool who actually has the patience to read through his stuff.
(Full Author Bio)

Celsus Sound: Trailblazing Wireless Freedom

Editor’s Note: Another incredibly late article — apologies to everyone all around! We’re extremely limited on time!

Last year, I had the good fortune of meeting with Jason Lim, co-founder and former CEO of Nuforce. Since leaving Nuforce (the company is now a subsidiary of Optoma), Mr. Lim has been busy. He founded Heap Venture, a holding company with a multi-pronged approach to home and personal audio. Aside from NuPrime, a direct vestige of Nuforce’s home audio products, Lim embarked on a completely new audio category with Celsus Sound. The bold, ambitious stated mission and purpose of Celsus Sound is the production of superior portable audio products for discerning music lovers, setting quality above all else. As the pilot brand of Heap Venture, Celsus Sound is focused on the premium market and it has attempted to do so with the Companion One. For example, solely in terms of build, the Companion One is milled from a single ingot of aluminum, with top and bottom covers cut from Corning Gorilla Glass.

The Companion One is the first of a new wave of wireless portable DAC devices.
The Companion One is the first of a new wave of wireless portable DAC devices.

The main trick up the sleeve of Celsus Sound, however, doesn’t involve the outer appearance of its products, but rather the inner guts. When it came out in the middle of last year, the Companion One was the world’s first portable DAC device to wirelessly stream high-resolution audio (up to 24-bit, 192 kHz) over wireless networks. While other devices have since attempted to bridge the gap, the Companion One came first, and it’s what we’ll quickly highlight here.


In order to do high-resolution, 24/192 PCM streaming over a typical 802.11 network, the Companion One had to utilize newly developed hardware from SaviAudio. The Taiwanese design startup (and hi-fi focused subsidiary of the larger, fabless ASIC firm Savitech), whose previous offerings were mostly for the budget-minded, developed a wireless streaming module dedicated to high-end audio. A naked demonstration of its capabilities are shown below:

Thus, this wireless streaming module, together with a 32/384 and DSD-cable USB receiver (SaviAudio is mostly known for its USB receiver modules) form the streaming digital heart of the Companion One. In turn, digital-to-analog conversion duties are handled by the now-ubiquitous ES9018K2M two-channel chip from ESSTech, kept pace by dual low-jitter oscillators (one for 44.1 kHz multiples and the other for 48 kHz multiples). The result is a very respectable >115 dB(A) SNR under a 10 kΩ load.

As for the analog end, the Companion One employs the OPA1612 for I/V conversion and the AD8397, doubling in duties for both voltage gain and current buffering. Celsus claims that the unit’s signal path and headphone amplifier circuit have been “painstakingly optimized for maximal headphone performance. ” The result is actually pretty impressive, pumping out detailed but liquid audio.

The Companion One, paired with Celsus Sound's Gramo One earbuds.
The Companion One, paired with Celsus Sound‘s Gramo One earbuds.

The Good: Mobile Device Connectivity

Setting up audio streaming via USB is as easy as plug and play, whether it be from my main mobile companion the Apple iPhone 6, or from any Android device. The sound quality, as mentioned, is great. I did experience a snafu during the latter stages of my loaner experience where an accidental press of a weird combination of keys tripped off the USB functionality, but the majority of the time, pairing mobile devices with the Companion One has been a breeze, and Celsus Sound provides Lightning, 40-Pin, micro-USB, and regular USB cables for connecting your devices — keyed for easy recognition, and no CCK or extra dongles necessary.

The Bad: How Minimal is too Minimal?

I can appreciate a nice minimal design aesthetic. The Companion One might resemble an oversized smartphone and these days smartphones don’t have many buttons to them, but this thing is still a DAC and the Companion One is just a toggle or two shy of a good user experience. Why use a button for selecting between wi-fi and USB, or between infrastructure and access point mode, when a toggle is far more intuitive?

Celsus Sound Companion One

The Ugly: Wireless Streaming

Alright, let me hit you with the bad news. The really bad news. The wireless streaming function has problems.

And when I write, “problems,” I mean the kind that will occasionally stutter your audio, color it with clicks, and lag hard enough to make a gamer break down in tears. Whether it is thru access point mode or client mode, via iOS AirPlay or Android DLNA, the latency from input action to device reaction is about 2-3 seconds. So that means that watching a YouTube video on your smartphone will not have synchronized audio, and skipping tracks as well as changing volume on iTunes is a waiting game.

Furthermore, streaming over Windows is not straightforward, unless you’re running iTunes’ AirPlay function, rather than DLNA via Windows Media Player. However, even AirPlay via Windows has issues, as volume will reset every single time you restart the program — the Companion One doesn’t seem to store volume data in memory for some reason (even though it does so through wired USB playback). If you’re using a sensitive earphone, don’t have them in your ears when you press play, lest you expect to be blasted with ear ringing SPLs.

So yes, to say that Celsus Sound has some kinks to work out with the streaming aspect of the Companion One‘s functionality is to be kind. At the same time, Celsus is not the only company with lag problems; even the insanely expensive Astell&Kern AK320 and AK380 have had issues with lag upon playback with its AK Connect app, though the problem isn’t as severe.

For all its issues, the Companion One does get the distinction of being the first device to pull off this wireless streaming capability — perhaps it is Celsus‘ way of navigating blue oceans, but I have to applaud Jason Lim for taking a risk and releasing products that few others are considering.

Celsus Sound Companion One

I mean the kind that will occasionally stutter your audio, color it with clicks, and lag hard enough to make a gamer break down in tears.

So let’s get on with the good news. The Companion One is 100% firmware upgradable, and all of these problems are solvable via software updates. The hardware is fine. The software isn’t — yet, especially when you’re a small company attempting an ambitious endeavor to stream both via AirDrop and DLNA on both desktop and mobile devices. The bottom line is that the Companion One, as cool as it is, is not quite ready for wireless primetime.

If you must get the Celsus Sound Companion One, get it first as a traditional portable DAC/amp. It works seamlessly with iOS and Android, as well as OSX. There are driver issues with Windows. There are more serious and crippling issues with wireless streaming. But it works well as a DAC, and the wireless capability will come along soon enough.

In Pictures: TEAC HA-P90SD

We didn’t get to listen to it at all, as the operating system froze and crashed repeatedly; turning the power knob to the ‘OFF’ setting couldn’t even turn it off — we had to wait until the battery drained. A very bad sign indeed.

The build quality feels similar to that of the lower cost HA-P50B, with slightly larger dimensions. It would be considered very good for a $299 budget device (as is the HA-P50B), but is starting to show its lumps as a $700 premium DAP device. Worrisome all over.

Better step up your game, TEAC.

Continue reading In Pictures: TEAC HA-P90SD

Beyerdynamic A200p: Portable Digital Amplifier

Editor’s Note: The Beyerdynamic A200p is a product adapted from and very similar to the Astell&Kern AK10. The two share very similar functionality and outward appearance.

Disclaimer: I’d like to thank Beyerdynamic for loaning me the A200p for review.  The sample will be returned to Beyerdynamic following evaluation.

A200p iphone cable_mini

The Beyerdynamic A200p is a very small DAC/Amp combo for portable use with computers, iPads, iPhones, and Android phones (list of confirmed compatible devices). Continue reading Beyerdynamic A200p: Portable Digital Amplifier

DSD & Resonessence Labs’ Herus

Editor’s Note: When Mr. T reviewed the Resonessence Labs Concero HP last year (review here), he was thoroughly impressed by its robust build and superlative sound quality, along with Resonessence’s impressive technical service attributes. However, the Concero HP, being the size of a removable optical drive, was merely a transportable device, rather than a truly portable one. AnakChan gives us a pithy overview of the Herus, the Canadian firm’s smallest device yet. Continue reading DSD & Resonessence Labs’ Herus